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With the finish line now back in its traditional location of Dakar, Bruno Saby won a third title for Mitsubishi and Peterhansel took a third straight success in the motorcycle category.
The event returned to Paris after reaching Dakar, resulting in a particularly grueling event. Edi Orioli claimed a third title in the bikes category.
Peterhansel returned to take a fourth bikes category win in , but lost to Orioli in because of refuelling problems. The rally ran exclusively in Africa for the first time, with the route running from Dakar to Agadez , Niger and back to Dakar.
Citroen's withdrawal due to a rule change paved the way for Mitsubishi to take a fourth victory. Japan's Kenjiro Shinozuka became the first non-European to win the event.
Peterhansel equalled Neveu's record of five motorcycle category wins in , before going one better in , when the event returned to its traditional Paris-Dakar route.
With the help of Renault backing, Schlesser overcame the works Mitsubishi and Nissan crews to win, whilst Peterhansel's decision to switch to the car category allowed Richard Sainct to take BMW's first title in the bikes category since Schlesser and Sainct both successfully defended their titles in , traversing the route from Dakar to the Egyptian capital of Cairo.
The began in the French town of Arras and long-time Dakar participant Hiroshi Masuoka won the event for Mitsubishi Masouka had led for much of the previous year's rally.
The rally featured an unorthodox route from Marseille to Sharm El Sheikh. Masuoka defend his title after teammate and long-time leader Peterhansel was plagued by mechanical problems in the penultimate stage.
By , the entry list had increased to , up from in , with a record competitors starting in The route was from Clermont-Ferrand to Dakar, and was the year Peterhansel emulated Hubert Auriol's feat of winning the rally on both two wheels and four.
The Frenchman defended his title in , when the rally began for the first time in Barcelona. In the bikes category, KTM continued their success with Nani Roma in , who switched to the car category the following year, and Cyril Despres in The event moved to Lisbon.
Nissan pulled out having failed to provide effective opposition to Mitsubishi, who took a sixth consecutive victory, this time with former skiing champion Luc Alphand after Peterhansel committed a series of errors late in the rally.
In what would be the final African event of the Dakar, Despres took his second title in the bikes category, having conceded victory in to Marc Coma after suffering an injury.
The event , due to start in Lisbon, was cancelled on 4 January amid fears of terrorist attacks in Mauritania following the killing of four French tourists.
The event , the first held in South America with a respectable competitors, saw Volkswagen take its first win in the Dakar as a works entrant courtesy of Giniel de Villiers.
Initially, Teammate and former WRC champion Carlos Sainz led the race comfortably until crashing out,  but went on to win the event in After a poor showing in , Mitsubishi withdrew from the competition and left Volkswagen as the sole works entrant.
The German marque won the race for a third time in , this time with Nasser Al-Attiyah , before they withdrew to focus on their upcoming WRC entry and leaving the Dakar with no factory participants in the car class.
Both tied on three victories apiece after Coma's third win in Peterhansel had joined the team in after Mitsubishi's departure, but had been unable to challenge the Volkswagen drivers.
Following Volkswagen's withdrawal, Peterhansel was able to secure his fourth win in the car category and his tenth in total, his main opposition coming from within his own team.
Peterhansel successfully defended his title in as the Damen Jefferies buggies of Sainz and Al-Attiyah failed to last the distance.
Despres also racked up a further two wins for KTM in the bikes class in and , bringing his tally to five, aided by Coma's absence due to injury in the latter year.
Coma struck back on his return to the Dakar in , taking a comfortable fourth title and a 13th in succession for KTM, whilst Nani Roma emulated Auriol and Peterhansel by taking his maiden title in the cars class a decade on from his victory on two wheels - albeit only after team orders by X-raid slowed down Peterhansel.
Peugeot returned for the event with an all-new, diesel-powered, two-wheel drive contender, but failed to make an impact as X-raid 's Minis once more dominated.
Al-Attiyah won the event in his second year for the team, while Coma racked up a fifth title in the bikes after the defection of long-time rival Despres to the car class and Peugeot.
Peugeot did however see success in with Peterhansel behind the wheel, racking up his 6th win in the car category, and again in and until Peugeot decide to officially leave the competition.
In Toyota won for the first time with Nasser Al-Attiyah in his third victory with three different manufacturers. Sam Sunderland and Matthias Walkner won the and edition also for the team from Mattighofen 18 overall victories as in The five competitive groups in the Dakar are the motorcycles , quads , the cars class which ranges from buggies to small SUVs , UTVs, and the trucks class.
Many vehicle manufacturers use the rally's harsh environment as both a testing ground and an opportunity to show off their vehicles' durability—though, in fact, most vehicles are heavily modified or purpose-built.
As of , the engine capacity limit for all motorbikes competing in the Dakar Rally is cc. Engines may be either single or twin cylinder.
Riders are divided into two groups, "Elite" Group 1 and Non-Elite Group 2 , with the latter subdivided into two further groups - the "Super Production" Group 2.
A subcategory is the "Original by Motul " category formerly named "Malle Moto" due to the only piece of luggage competitors were allowed to take with them was a "malle", a French term for box or trunk.
The organization commits to play the role of an assistance team for the pilots of this category, this consists in 4 people dedicated to transport the competitors "malle" or boxes between Bivouac sites, as well as any additional equipment or belongings.
BMW and Cagiva have also enjoyed success in the past. Prior to , Quads were a subdivision of the motorbike category, but they were granted their own separate classification in and are designated Group 3 in the current regulations.
They are divided into two subgroups - Group 3. Yamaha are unbeaten in the Quad category since , with their main current opposition coming courtesy of Honda and Can-Am.
The T1 Group is made up of "Improved Cross-Country Vehicles", subdivided according to engine type petrol or diesel and drive type two-wheel or four-wheel drive.
Mini have been the most successful marque in the car category in recent years, thanks to the efforts of the non-factory X-raid team, with limited involvement currently coming from Toyota , Ford and Haval.
Several constructors also produce bespoke buggies for the event, most notably SMG and Damen Jefferies.
Mitsubishi is historically the most successful manufacturer in the car class, with Volkswagen , Citroen , Peugeot and Porsche having all tasted success in the past with factory teams.
Jean-Louis Schlesser has also won the event twice with his Renault -supported buggies. Trucks participating in the competition are subdivided into "Series Production" trucks T4.
The truck event was not run in after it was decided the vehicles, by this stage with twin engines generating in excess of horsepower, were too dangerous following the death of a DAF crew member in an accident during the rally.
Kamaz has dominated the truck category since the turn of the century, although it has come under increasing pressure from rivals such as Iveco , MAN , Renault , and Tatra , which enjoyed much success in the s.
In the 21st century Kamaz almost always won the truck class, winning fourteen out of eighteen times. The UTVs class was introduced in Previously run under the car category as the T3 class, Side by Side UTV vehicles are now run under their own class in Dakar competition.
The rally is broadcast on television in more than different countries. A live feed of the event and a roundup of each day's race progress is made into a minute programme.
The rally organizers and their television crews provide 20 edit stations along the route for various countries to produce their own programmes about the rally.
There are four TV helicopters, six stage cameras, and three bivouac crews to make over 1, hours of TV over the two-week period.
A television documentary Race to Dakar described the experiences of a team, including the English actor Charley Boorman , in preparation for and entry into the Dakar Rally.
On 9 January, the trio became separated from a convoy of vehicles after they stopped to make repairs to a faulty steering arm.
They were declared missing on 12 January. Thatcher, Verney, and the mechanic were all unharmed. Six people were killed during the race, three participants and three local residents.
In one incident, Baye Sibi, a year-old Malian girl, was killed by a racer while she crossed a road. A film crew's vehicle killed a mother and daughter in Mauritania on the last day of the race.
The race participants killed, in three separate crashes, were a Dutch navigator on the DAF Trucks team, a French privateer , and a French rider.
Racers were also blamed for starting a wildfire that caused a panic on a train running between Dakar and Bamako , where three more people were killed.
In , French driver Daniel Nebot both rolled and crashed his Toyota heavily at high speed killing his co-driver Bruno Cauvy.
Meoni was the 11th motorcyclist and the 45th person overall to die in the history of the race. On 13 January a five-year-old Senegalese girl was hit and killed by a service lorry after wandering onto a main road, bringing the total deaths to five.
He won the third stage of the event between Nador and Er Rachidia only a few days before his death. The death occurred despite efforts by the event organisers to improve competitor safety, including limiting speed, mandatory rest at fuel stops, and reduced fuel capacity requirements for the bike classes.
In , year-old South African motor racer Elmer Symons died of injuries sustained in a crash during the fourth stage of the Rally.
Symons crashed with his bike in the desert between Er Rachidia and Ouarzazate , Morocco. The cause of death was initially believed to be a heart attack,  but it was later suggested that Aubijoux had died of internal injuries sustained in a crash earlier that day while competing in the 14th stage of the race.
The Dakar Rally was cancelled due to security concerns after al-Qaeda 's murder of four French tourists on Christmas Eve in December in Mauritania a country in which the rally spent eight days , various accusations against the rally calling it "neo-colonialist", and al-Qaeda's accusations against Mauritania calling it a supporter of "crusaders, apostates and infidels".
They said direct threats had also been made against the event by al-Qaeda related organisations. I don't think they are going to stop me.
On 7 January , the body of year-old motorcyclist Pascal Terry from France was found. He had been missing for three days and his body lay on a remote part of the second stage between Santa Rosa de la Pampa and Puerto Madryn.
On 4 January , a woman watching the Dakar Rally was killed when a vehicle taking part in the race veered off the course and hit her during the opening stage.
On 1 January , motorcyclist Jorge Martinez Boero of Argentina died after suffering a cardiac arrest after a fall.
He was treated by medical staff within five minutes of the accident, but died on the way to hospital. On 7 January , motorcycle rider Michal Hernik died in unknown circumstances during Stage 3 of the rally.
When the race was held in Africa, it was subject to criticism from several sources, generally focusing on the race's impact on the inhabitants of the African countries through which it passed.
Some African residents along the race's course in previous years have said they saw limited benefits from the race; that race participants spent little money on the goods and services local residents can offer.
The racers produced substantial amounts of dust along the course, and were blamed for hitting and killing livestock, in addition to occasionally injuring or killing people.
After the race, when three Africans were killed in collisions with vehicles involved in the race, PANA , a Dakar-based news agency , wrote that the deaths were "insignificant for the [race's] organisers".
The Vatican City newspaper L'Osservatore Romano called the race a "vulgar display of power and wealth in places where men continue to die from hunger and thirst.
The rally was criticised before for crossing through the disputed territory of Western Sahara , which has been occupied by Morocco since , without the approval of the Polisario Front separatist movement, which considers itself the representative of the indigenous Sahrawi people.
The move to Saudi Arabia for the Dakar Rally was under heavy criticism because of the situation of Human rights in Saudi Arabia and the position of women in that country.
The environmental impact of the race has been another area of criticism. In , the Dakar rally was criticized for damage done to archaeological sites in Chile.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Off-road rally raid. For the video game, see Paris-Dakar Rally video game.
This article is about the race held in South America since Countries the rally has been through from to orange countries were only travelled through in the race to Cape Town.
Countries through which the Dakar Rally has been from to since it was moved from the previous Paris-Dakar route due to security concerns.
Tracks through the Sahara desert in Mauritania. Further information: List of Dakar Rally records. Main article: List of Dakar Rally fatal accidents.
Archived from the original on January 20, Retrieved Nice Matin. Archived from the original PDF on Mitsubishi Motors.
Archived from the original on BBC Sport. The Guardian. The New York Times. Retrieved January 18, MSN Sports. Official website of the Dakar rally raid.
Amaury Sport Organisation. Archived from the original PDF on 14 June Retrieved 19 July Motorsport Memorial. Sports Illustrated. January 1, Archived from the original on January 13, Retrieved March 1, Bismarck Tribune.
Fox News. January 12, Retrieved January 12, Agence France-Presse. Human Rights Watch. Dakar Rally. Dakar Rally winners cars.
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Barcelona — Dakar. Clermont-Ferrand — Dakar. Nani Roma. Marseille — Sharm el Sheikh. Hiroshi Masuoka Andreas Schulz. Rather gentler and more akin to modern rallying was the Glidden Tour , run by the American Automobile Association between and , which had timed legs between control points and a marking system to determine the winners.
The First World War brought a lull to rallying. The Monte Carlo Rally was not resuscitated until , but since then, apart from World War II and its aftermath, it has been an annual event and remains a regular round of the World Rally Championship.
In the s, helped by the tough winters, it became the premier European rally, attracting or more participants.
The most important of these were Austria's Alpenfahrt , which continued into its 44th edition in , Italy's Coppa delle Alpi , and the Coupe Internationale des Alpes International Alpine Trial , organised jointly by the automobile clubs of Italy, Germany, Austria, Switzerland and, latterly, France.
This last event, run from to , attracted strong international fields vying for an individual Glacier Cup or a team Alpine Cup, including successful Talbot , Riley , MG and Triumph teams from Britain and increasingly strong and well funded works representation from Adolf Hitler 's Germany, keen to prove its engineering and sporting prowess with successful marques like Adler , Wanderer and Trumpf.
In Ireland, the first Ulster Motor Rally was run from multiple starting points. It continued in this form until Belgium's Jean Trasenster Bugatti and France's Jean Trevoux Hotchkiss tied for first place, denying the German works teams shortly before their countries were overrun.
Rallying was again slow to get under way after a major war, but the s were the Golden Age of the long-distance road rally.
This was the premier international championship until , when the FIA created the World Rally Championship for Manufacturers , won that first year by Alpine-Renault.
The Monte, because of its glamour, got the media coverage and the biggest entries and in snowy years was also a genuine challenge ; while the Acropolis took advantage of Greece's appalling roads to become a truly tough event.
These events were road races in all but name, but in Italy such races were still allowed, and the Mille Miglia continued until a serious accident in caused it to be banned.
It spawned similar events in a few other countries, but none survive. Rallying became very popular in Sweden and Finland in the s, thanks in part to the invention there of the specialsträcka Swedish or erikoiskoe Finnish , or special stage: shorter sections of route, usually on minor or private roads—predominantly gravel in these countries—away from habitation and traffic, which were separately timed.
The idea spread to other countries, albeit more slowly to the most demanding events. The RAC Rally had formally become an International event in , but Britain's laws precluded the closure of public highways for special stages.
This meant it had to rely on short manoeuvrability tests, regularity sections and night map-reading navigation to find a winner, which made it unattractive to foreign crews.
Rallying also took off in Spain and Portugal and by the s had spread to their colonial territories in the mid-Atlantic.
By the end of the s events had not only begun in Madeira and the Canary Islands , but also on the far-flung Azores. In countries where there was no shortage of demanding roads across remote terrain, other events sprang up.
Canada hosted one of the world's longest and most gruelling rallies in the s, the Shell Rally. The quest for longer and tougher events saw the re-establishment of the intercontinental rallies beginning with the London—Sydney Marathon held in The rally trekked across Europe, the Middle-East and the sub-continent before boarding a ship in Bombay to arrive in Fremantle eight days later before the final push across Australia to Sydney.
The first was the London to Mexico World Cup Rally which saw competitors travel from London eastwards across to Bulgaria before turning westwards on a more southerly route before boarding a ship in Lisbon.
Disembarking in Rio de Janeiro the route travelled southward into Argentina before turning northwards along the western coast of South America before arriving in Mexico City.
The rally travelled southwards into Africa but a navigational error saw most of the rally become lost in Algerian desert.
Eventually only seven teams reached the southernmost point of the rally in Nigeria with five teams making it back to West Germany having driven all legs and only the winning team completing the full distance.
This, coupled with the economic climate of the s the heat went out of intercontinental rallying after a second London—Sydney Marathon in The concept though was revived in for the original Paris-Dakar Rally.
The success of the Dakar would eventually see intercontinental rallying recognised as its own discipline; the Rally Raid. The introduction of the special stage brought rallying effectively into the modern era.
It placed a premium on fast driving, and enabled healthy programmes of smaller events to spring up in Britain, France, Scandinavia, Belgium and elsewhere.
Since then, the nature of the events themselves has evolved relatively slowly. The increasing costs, both of organization and of competing, as well as safety concerns, have, over the last twenty years, brought progressively shorter rallies, shorter stages and the elimination of nighttime running, scornfully referred to as "office hours rallying" by older hands.
Some of the older international events have gone, replaced by others from a much wider spread of countries around the world, until today rallying is truly a worldwide sport.
At the same time, fields have shrunk dramatically, as the amateur in his near-standard car is squeezed out. Gruelling long-distance events continued to be run.
In , a group of American offroaders created the Mexican Rally, a tough 1,mile race for cars and motorcycles which ran the length of the Baja California peninsula, much of it initially over roadless desert, which quickly gained fame as the Baja , today run by the SCORE organization.
In , a young Frenchman, Thierry Sabine, founded an institution when he organised the first "rallye-raid" from Paris to Dakar, in Senegal, the event now called the Dakar Rally.
From amateur beginnings it quickly became a massive commercial circus catering for cars, motorcycles and trucks, and spawned other similar events.
The main change over that period has been in the cars, and in the professionalisation and commercialisation of the sport.
Manufacturers had entered works cars in rallies, and in their forerunner and cousin events, from the very beginning: the Paris-Rouen was mainly a competition between them, while the Thousand Mile Trial of had more trade than private entries.
Although there had been exceptions like the outlandish Ford V8 specials created by the Romanians for the Monte Carlo Rally, rallies before World War II had tended to be for standard or near-standard production cars, a rule supported by manufacturers because it created a relatively even playing field.
After the war, most competing cars were production saloons or sports cars , with only minor modifications to improve performance, handling, braking and suspension.
This kept costs down and allowed many more people to afford the sport using ordinary family cars, so entry lists grew into the hundreds.
As public interest grew, car companies started to introduce special models or variants for rallying, such as the British Motor Corporation 's highly successful Mini Cooper , introduced in , and its successor the Mini Cooper S , developed by the Cooper Car Company.
Shortly after, Ford of Britain first hired Lotus to create a high-performance version of their Cortina family car, then in launched the Escort Twin Cam , one of the most successful rally cars of its era.
Other manufacturers were not content with modifying their 'bread-and-butter' cars. These makers overcame the rules of FISA as the FIA was called at the time by building the requisite number of these models for the road.
Thus the Audi Quattro was born. International regulations had prohibited four-wheel drive; but FISA accepted that this was a genuine production car, and changed the rules.
The Quattro quickly became the car to beat on snow, ice or gravel; and in took Hannu Mikkola to the World Rally Championship title.
Other manufacturers had no production four-wheel drive car on which to base their response, so FISA was persuaded to change the rules, and open the Championship to cars in Group B.
This particular era was not to last. On the Rallye de Portugal , four spectators were killed; then in May, on the Tour de Corse , Henri Toivonen went over the edge of a mountain road and was incinerated in the fireball that followed.
FISA immediately changed the rules again: rallying after would be in Group A cars, closer to the production model. One notably successful car during this period was the Lancia Delta Integrale , dominating world rallying during , , , , and — winning six consecutive world rally championships, a feat yet unbeaten.
Most of the works drivers of the s were amateurs, paid little or nothing, reimbursed their expenses and given bonuses for winning although there were certainly exceptions, such as the Grand Prix drivers who were brought in for some events.
Then in came arguably the first rallying superstar and one of the first to be paid to rally full-time , Sweden's Erik Carlsson , driving for Saab.
In the s, the competitions manager of BMC, Stuart Turner, hired a series of brave and gifted young Finns, skills honed on their country's highly competitive gravel or snow rallies, and the modern professional driver was born.
As special stage rallying spread around the world Scandinavian drivers were challenged by drivers from Italy, Germany, Britain, Spain and elsewhere.
There are two main forms: stage rallies and road rallies. Since the s, stage rallies have been the professional branch of the sport. They are based on straightforward speed over stretches of road closed to other traffic.
These may vary from flat asphalt and mountain passes to rough forest tracks, from ice and snow to desert sand, each chosen to provide a challenge for the crew and a test of the car's performance and reliability.
The fact that the vehicles are in some cases closely related to road cars may be a factor in creating spectator interest, especially [ citation needed ] in Europe, Asia and Oceania.
Road rallies are the original form, held on highways open to normal traffic, where the emphasis is not on outright speed but on accurate timekeeping and navigation and on vehicle reliability, often on difficult roads and over long distances.
They are now primarily amateur events. There are several types of road rallies testing accuracy, navigation or problem solving.
Some common types are: Regularity rally or a Time-Speed-Distance rally also known as TSD rally, testing ability to stay on track and on time ,  Monte-Carlo styles Monte Carlo, Pan Am, Pan Carlo, Continental rally testing navigation and timing , and various Gimmick rally types testing logic and observation.
Many early rallies were called trials, and a few still are, although this term is now mainly applied to the specialist form of motor sport of climbing as far as you can up steep and slippery hills.
Many meets or assemblies of car enthusiasts and their vehicles are still called rallies, even if they involve merely the task of getting to the location often on a trailer.
Rallying is a very popular sport at the "grass roots" of motorsport—that is, motor clubs. Individuals interested in becoming involved in rallying are encouraged to join their local automotive clubs.
Club rallies e. These skills are important fundamentals required for anyone who wishes to progress to higher-level events.
See Categories of rallies. Short special stage practice events on public roads are in some countries organized by the local clubs, with a permission of the local police, the community normally using the road, and the road authority.
The public road is closed during these by the organisers or the police. Rallying is also unique in its choice of where and when to race.
Rallies take place on all surfaces and in all conditions: asphalt tarmac , gravel , or snow and ice, sometimes more than one in a single rally, depending on the course and event.
Rallies are also run every month of the year, in every climate from bitter cold to monsoonal rain. As a result of the drivers not knowing exactly what lies ahead, although some times the driver or their teams are offered an opportunity to "recce" or reconnaissance the course the lower traction available on dirt roads, and the driving characteristics of small cars, the drivers are much less visibly smooth than circuit racers, regularly sending the car literally flying over bumps, and sliding the cars out of corners.
Rally cars are thus unlike virtually any other top-line racing cars in that they retain the ability to run at normal driving speeds, and indeed are registered for street travel.
Some events contain "super special stages" where two competing cars set off on two parallel tracks often small enough to fit in a football stadium , giving the illusion they are circuit racing head to head.
Run over a day, a weekend, or more, the winner of the event has the lowest combined special and super special stage times.
Given the short distances of super special stages compared to the regular special stages and consequent near-identical times for the frontrunning cars, it is very rare for these spectator-oriented stages to decide rally results, though it is a well-known axiom that a team cannot win the rally at the super special, but they can certainly lose it.
Pacenotes are a unique and major tool in modern rallying. Television spectators will occasionally notice the voice of a co-driver in mid-race reading the pacenotes over the car's internal intercom.
These pacenotes provide a detailed description of the course and allow the driver to predict conditions ahead and prepare for various course conditions such as turns and jumps.
In many rallies, including those of the World Rally Championship WRC , drivers are allowed to run on the stages of the course before competition and create their own pacenotes.Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Bobsleigh Extreme sledding Luge Skeleton. This kept costs down and allowed many more people to afford the sport using ordinary family cars, so entry lists grew Csgoatse the hundreds. Menu Programs Teen Driving Program. Postimees Sport in Estonian.